albacore tuna

albacoretuna

Albacore tuna can be found in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters the world over and consequently are known under many names, commonly: pigfish, tombo (Japan), pacific albacore, longfin tuna and others. They generally stay away from coastlines, apparently preferring cooler, deeper water as they age, growing to around 1.2metres in length and weighing about 60kg. Looking at a side-on sketch, it is easy to miss the large pectoral fin behind the gill. When seen swimming these appear like large wings sticking out from their sides.

tuna_wings

They are a member of the Scombridae family which includes the other tunas, mackerels and bonitos. The scombridaes have in common a need to be continuously swimming as they lack a swimming bladder to help with buoyancy. They are a predator at the top of the food chain and dive over 400 metres down in search of food therefore limiting our knowledge of what they get up to down there. It is thought that they host elaborate cocktail parties and engage in lengthy discourse on contemporary literature. They are known to eat fish, crustaceans, tiny deep-sea squids and gelatinous organisms. What is a gelatinous organism you say? Oh… that’s stuff like gummy bears and sour worms. Apparently the bigger and older the tuna the higher the content of mercury, but also the deeper they live, so the less likely they’ll be caught by trawlers.

In terms of sustainability, it depends a lot on which geographic fishery you’re referring to and how the fish was caught. This is true to some extent of all fisheries but with tuna being so popular the world over it leads to the frustrating situation of being marked as unsustainable in one place and given the green light in another. That’s okay if you’re willing to read 15 articles on the subject and really get under its skin, but for the punter making a decision about what’s for dinner, it’s just confusing. Presumably the albacore tuna steak I purchased the other day was from the New Zealand fishery, which – according to Forest and Bird – is mainly caught by troll (80%) and longline (20%) off the west coast of New Zealand’s North and South Islands, and is marked as a good choice. That’s right… 80% of our albacore is caught by trolls! LOL. Clearly I’m just scraping the surface of this topic here and intend to revisit parts of it later. Greenpeace recommend buying tuna caught via pole-and-line fishing and particularly avoiding long line and purse and seine methods, which have particularly bad outcomes in terms of by-catch of turtles and dolphins etc. Here’s a handy diagram. I’ve also read about ‘ranching’, which appears to be more prevalent in the States for the tinned tuna market, where juvenile tuna are caught then reared in captivity. Whether or not this is problematic belongs under a separate discussion on farmed fish.

While researching all of this I came across the following gem of a webpage, published by “a retired aerospace systems engineer, long time boater and ocean fisherman”. If you ever wanted to know absolutely everything there was to know about the habits of the albacore, this is the place. For example a discussion on the amount of oxygen present in the water required to keep them happy. Apparently during intense feeding frenzies the oxygen levels drop so low only sharks can handle it… so the other predators leave them to it. I have absolutely no idea about the scientific veracity of all this but it’s great reading.

tuna_steak

Anyway I fried my tuna steak, treating it like I would a thick rump steak. The meat of the albacore is sought after for its mild flavour and white flesh. In the US it is known as “chicken of the sea”, but to me it lacks the romance that red tuna has when cut through to reveal the contrasting centre. The pan fried albacore had a creamy appearance and came away in distinct meaty ribs on the plate. It was super tasty, but I can’t help think that the subtlety of the light coloured flesh was lost in the pan. Raw fish salad next time, perhaps?

 

 

sow fish

I’ve never heard of a sow fish and it doesn’t feature on the fish poster I’m most familiar with. This plays well with the notion of the fish poster as an abstract idea, rather than this or that poster we’ve seen at our local fish ’n’ chips shop. I picked up some sow fish heads and bones as they were the only non-oily white fish available that day for stock making.

The sow fish, also known as the giant boarfish or common boarfish (according to Wikipedia) is found in the eastern Indian Ocean, around southern Australia, and New Zealand. Clearly I am going to need a field guide to fishes and may need to come back to the humble sow fish to do it justice. I found the following article interesting – prepared by the fish section staff of the Museum of New Zealand:

“divers have witnessed giant boarfish rooting in the sand with their long snouts like a pig, hunting for their preferred food of crabs, worms, brittle starfish and sea cucumbers. Curiously, giant boarfish are one of the few fish species in our waters that are known to actively prey on sea cucumbers.”
http://www.stuff.co.nz/sport/fishing/articles-reviews/fish/674304/Something-Fishy-Giant-Boarfish

I reckon any food blog worth it’s salt starts with a stock recipe.. I followed one from April Bloomfield’s ‘A Girl And Her Pig’. The cookbook is full of great recipes, interspersed with autobiographical snippets, anecdotes and tips. It is very well written and I should point out that I have paraphrased and added commentary into the following recipe:

2.3 kg fish bones and heads
½ a small spanish onion [what I call a ‘normal’ brown onion] – quartered
5 skin-on garlic cloves
1 small celery stalk – chopped in thirds
a small handful of fennel fronds
a small handful of flat-leaf parsley stems

Discard the eyes and use scissors to remove the gills. This is much more fiddly and awkward done than said.

sowfish_web 50_scale
Rinse under water and wipe away any remaining blood as this can cause bitterness. Combine the bones and remaining ingredients in a large pot and almost cover in water. Bring the water to a simmer over high heat then immediately lower the heat and cook at a gentle simmer for around 30 minutes, before passing the stock through a fine mesh sieve (and picking away at all the delicious leftover fish bits).

stock_pot 50_scale
Boiling should be avoided as it causes cloudiness. This requires some close attention – particularly when cooking on an old electric stove – and I’m a little hazy on the difference between simmering over high heat and boiling, but I was pleased with the clarity and colour of the stock. It will keep in the fridge for 3 days or a month in the freezer.